The presentations shown here were presented by St. Norbert College at the Undergraduate Research Forum.
We implemented a short-term, two-year project to measure the water quality of an urban creek undergoing restoration. We hypothesized that restoring the creek would positively impact the health of the stream by improving the macroinvertebrate abundance, water column characteristics, nutrients, and chlorophyll a.
The study contained three sites along Kelly Creek in South Beloit, IL. Site 1 and site 2 were within the restoration area of the creek. Here, efforts were made throughout the duration of the study to pick up trash, clean out muck, and plant riparian vegetation. Site 3 remained untreated. Data were collected in the summers of 2021 and 2022 approximately every two weeks. Macroinvertebrate abundance, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a were collected during each sampling period. Macroinvertebrate richness and diversity, and the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) were calculated.
Preliminary results suggest that amphipod (Gammaridae), dragonfly (Anisoptera), and leech (Hirudinea) abundances differ significantly by site. Dragonflies have a higher abundance in site 2 than in sites 1 and 3. Dragonflies have a mid-range HBI index value indicating better water quality in site 2. Leeches have a higher abundance in site 3 than in sites 1 and 2. Leeches have a high HBI index value, which indicates that they can survive well in polluted waters. Amphipods have a lower abundance in site 2 than in sites 1 and 3, likely due to the lack of their preferred rocky substrate in site 2. The results of this study will help to promote further research and improvement of Kelly Creek, and gain insight into short-term impacts of ecological restoration in polluted urban areas.
Lexi Ballard and Robby Cicciarelli
The goal of this research project was to find out if being a part of a social organization positively impacts academic motivation. Social organizations can be defined as Greek Life and Social Groups on campus. Understanding the impact that social organizations have on academic motivation can help guide students and faculty to better create and environment that encourages academic success. The research we are conducting is similar to Manyu Li, Irene Hanson Frieze, Timothy J. Nokes-Malach, Jeewon Cheong’s research on “Mediating processes between social relations and academic motivation”. This research study focuses on the impact of friends and attachment to their university to academic motivation. Our study focuses more on social organizations, rather than friends, and how they impact academic motivation.
Kylie Bennett and Elizabeth Heil
We introduce a generalization of derivations. We then establish a universal property which paves the way to relating secondary Kahler differentials with secondary derivations.
Lauren Chiappetta and Sydney Fetkenhauer
Various organizations wish to diversify; however, the definition of diversity is not always straightforward. Due to recent events surrounding women’s rights, we examined how a diversity statement that made explicit reference to Roe v. Wade affected perceptions of gender diversity within universities and companies.
Consistent with the preregistered sample size, we collected data from 222 respondents (71.1% White; 49.8% male, 36.4% female). Participants were randomly assigned to read a hypothetical diversity statement, in which we varied the type of organization (university vs. company) and the presence or absence of a Roe v. Wade statement. Then participants rated their perceptions of the organization’s diversity levels and their judgments about the diversity statement itself, as well as answering some questions about their own experiences.
We conducted a 2(organization type: university vs. company)x2(Roe statement: present vs. absent) factorial ANOVA on the dependent variable of gender diversity. Results indicated a nonsignificant main effect of the presence of a Roe v. Wade statement, F(1, 218)= 0.008, p=.929, η2=.000 and a nonsignificant interaction effect, F(1, 218)=.003, p=.953, η2=.000, but showed that participants perceived gender diversity differently based on if the organization of interest was a university or a company, F(1, 218)=3.969, p=.048, η2=.018. Participants perceived greater gender diversity when evaluating a hypothetical university’s statement (M=3.723, SD=.925) compared to a company’s statement (M= 3.464, SD=.995), but perceived gender diversity did not differ depending on the presence (M= 3.588, SD=.982) or absence (M= 3.595, SD=.957) of a Roe v. Wade statement (see Figure 1). Additionally, being assigned to the company or university condition did not affect perceived gender diversity differently based on the presence of a Roe. v. Wade statement.
So far, it appears that organization type (university vs. company) affected perceived gender diversity, but it is unclear whether the presence of the Roe v. Wade statement had an impact on perceived gender diversity. We plan to conduct further preregistered analyses, including examining different dependent variables (e.g., perceived inclusion and sincerity of diversity statement) and the effects of individual differences (like sentiments toward Roe v. Wade). Our hope is that results from this study will shed light on how diversity statements circulated by both universities and companies can make organization members feel included.
Reagan Engels and Crystal Schuster
Many college students experience procrastination at some point during their academic career. The present study sought to investigate the correlation between procrastination in college students and their reported levels of various negative mental health emotions, including anxiety, perceived stress, and depression. Whether or not a participant was considered a procrastinator was determined based on whether the participant completed the survey during the first five weeks of the semester or the last five weeks of the semester. Participants that completed the survey during the first five weeks were deemed non-procrastinators, while participants in the last five weeks were deemed procrastinators. This assumption was supported by participants’ averaged scores on questions in a procrastination scale. Statistical analysis revealed that participants who completed the survey in the first five weeks of the semester reported a statistically significant lower average procrastination score than participants in the last five weeks. Using the average procrastination score for each participant, correlation analyses demonstrated a weak, positive correlation between procrastination score and reported anxiety scores. Additionally, analyses demonstrated a moderate, positive correlation between procrastination score and perceived stress as well as depression scores. While these analyses cannot demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between procrastination and mental health, they do demonstrate that, as procrastination increases, so does reported negative mental health. Therefore, the findings of this research may be important for a college student to considering when deciding whether or not to procrastinate.
Morgan Fimreite and Harrison Williams
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a human-caused phenomenon that is disrupting the daily cycles of animals. Circadian disruption via ALAN, even at low levels, can disrupt development, behavior, and physiological function, including altered melatonin levels, increased secretion of glucocorticoids, decreasing body mass, and disrupting patterns of rest and arousal. However, in some cases, immunocompetency has increased in response to ALAN. The response to stress caused by ALAN may alter the energy budget of animals. We hypothesized that two demanding physiological responses, immunocompetency and telomere elongation, may compete for limited resources in developing birds. We tested this by exposing house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) chicks to ALAN at a level of approximately 1 lux in nest boxes for five nights pre-fledging. We conducted E. coli bacterial killing assays on plasma and measured telomere lengths from DNA collected before and after exposure. As the nestlings aged immunocompetency increased, but we found no effects of ALAN exposure. Surprisingly, telomere lengths increased in response to ALAN in house sparrows. We will discuss the effects of ALAN on physiological trade-offs and compare outcomes between a declining native and successful invasive species.
This research study explores visual communication elements in politics. For decades, campaign logos have been at the forefront of running a well-planned and successful political campaign; party logos have symbolized entire ideologies. This study looks at what elements make these logos effective and ineffective. It was found that these logos subconsciously add or subtract to a politician’s brand and the overall campaign message they are attempting to present. Also, logos may have a much larger impact in local races, where candidate name recognition alone is not enough to trigger any particularly strong feelings toward a candidate. In higher profile elections, the candidates’ names may trigger other associations that would overpower what’s conveyed in a logo. This study explores this topic and discovers more indicators as to what makes branded politics and visual rhetoric effective and impactful.
Burkholderia cepacia is a bacterial species that causes infection in plants and animals. Recent work in our lab has focused on a specific strain of B. cepacia that has a mutated vgrG gene. This gene is part of a cluster of genes that are predicted to make up a complex structure called the Type 6 secretion system (T6SS). This system functions to inject toxins into other cells for competition or infection. It is hypothesized that the vgrG gene encodes a protein that is required for the function of this T6SS during infection. Previous bioinformatics work determined that there are 19 vgrG genes in the B. cepacia genome, and we hypothesize that some of these will be required for infection in our system. We plan to start by examining the expression of these vgrG genes to determine which genes may be involved in infection. We will do this by characterizing activity of the promoter sequences associated with the vgrG genes. We hypothesize that there is variability in when the vgrG genes are expressed and that the vgrG promoters are temperature-dependent. We are currently establishing a method to test the gene expression of each vgrG gene of interest at varying temperatures using colorimetric assays. The results will allow us to distinguish between the activity of the different promoters as well as the effects of temperature on vgrG promoter activity. Understanding the expression of the vrgG genes will demonstrate the effect of temperature on B. cepacia virulence.
Kinetic Modeling of Dopamine Transport Protein Inhibition by Indole Based Modafinil Analogs Using Rotating Disk Voltammetry
Dopamine neurons, which synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine, create the reward circuit in our brains which allows us to feel pleasure and motivates us to repeat pleasurable behaviors. For example, eating a piece of chocolate causes the release of dopamine and reinforces the pleasure associated with chocolate consumption. Other functions of dopamine are regulation of sleep and motor movement.
Presynaptic dopaminergic neurons release dopamine which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to receptors on the receiving (postsynaptic) neuron. The signal is terminated when dopamine is transported back into the pre-synaptic cell that released it by a protein called the dopamine transporter. The dopamine transporter is the target of the therapeutics modafinil (a narcolepsy medication) and Ritalin (an ADHD medication) and the drugs of abuse cocaine and amphetamines. By inhibiting the dopamine transporter, these drugs slow down the reuptake of dopamine, increasing the dopamine signal. Modafinil specifically does this to promote wakefulness in people with sleep disorders. The goal of our project is to use small molecules with structures similar to modafinil (called structural analogs) to see how they affect the rate of reuptake of dopamine. The collected data is analyzed using kinetic models to learn about the dopamine transporter protein.
Emily Jerovetz and Crimson Groh
A broad-crested weir is a structure that directs and regulates flow of fluids. The specific goal of this study is to measure the toss width, specifically the slope of the water as it’s tossed off of the end of the weir, at designated points on the flume as flow velocity changes. We designed our experiment to measure quantitative data using a manometer for discharge height as well as the velocity meter to measure the fluid velocity. These measurements are used to qualitatively characterize the free surface shape, recognize patterns, and compare overshoot. The toss width is the priority of our experiment, with the heights and widths of the cavitation, which is the formation of an air bubble within the flow, being measured. As the toss width is influenced heavily by upstream characteristics, we will compute the upstream Froude number, which is characterized by a ratio from inertia to gravity as dominating forces. We predict that the results will show that as fluid velocity increases, our free surface shape will become more chaotic on the outflow and that our toss width will change, specifically the air bubble formed from our weir will have a larger height and smaller width. Broad-crested weirs are commonly used in nature as a dam that regulates flow. They can be used recreationally by keeping fish populations in specific areas along a river, encouraging fishing. Studying these weirs inside of a controlled environment can give us insight into how they can be used effectively in nature.
Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of sour skin rot in onion crops, and is an opportunistic pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis. There are limited treatments available for this bacterium due to its innate resistance to antibiotics, and its virulence mechanisms are not well understood. This work aims to identify and describe virulence factors necessary for B. cepacia pathogenesis. Transposon mutagenesis in B. cepacia ATCC 25416, followed by a virulence screen in an onion infection model identified mutants that generated smaller wounds at 24 hours post-infection. We chose to follow up on mutant 169 and determined that the transposon inserted in the rfbB gene of chromosome one. Expression analysis suggested that the entire rfbBDCE operon is likely disrupted. rfbB is homologous to genes encoding glucose dehydratase, an enzyme in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis pathway. Production of altered LPS was confirmed in the mutant, and current work is focused on determining whether this disruption affects the pathogen’s ability to interact with host cells. Initially, we focused on designing a bacterial adhesion and invasion assay in the onion host, but this model proved inconsistent. We are currently developing a new assay using a human epithelial cell line with the goal of determining whether the altered LPS impedes binding and/or invasion into host cells. This quantitative assay will be supplemented with direct visualization of bacterial binding and invasion using confocal microscopy. Together, these data establish the B. cepacia rfbBDCE operon as critical for virulence.
Jonah Koleske and Issac Leiterman
The Venturi Device, studied by Giovani Battista Venturi in the late 19th-century, is a constriction weir that decreases the outflow fluid height compared to the inflow fluid height as well as increasing flow velocity. Through an experiment designed in the SNC Fluid Mechanics lab using an open channel flume, we obtained quantitative measurements of various flow characteristics including discharge heights and flow velocities. These variables are then used to determine the slope of the hydraulic jump through the constricted channel as well as the Froude number, a classification of flow behavior through a specific measurement of the ratio of inertial and gravitational forces. This study aims to answer the impact the Froude number has on the average slope of the hydraulic jump as it passes through the Venturi Device. We hypothesize that as the inflow Froude number is increased, the slope of the hydraulic jump will increase.
Diversity is an ambiguous concept and can be defined in various ways. In this study we examined how writing about egalitarianism affects how people perceive the diversity of companies with high numerical representation (demographics indicating a diverse workforce) compared to companies with high employee inclusion (diverse employees report feeling accepted). Data was collected from 174 undergraduate students (87.9% White, 75.3% female). Participants ranked six values in terms of personal importance. Participants were randomly assigned to write for five minutes about what role egalitarianism (or their top-ranked value) has played in their life. Next, participants rated the diversity of three hypothetical companies that varied in their level of numerical diversity and how accepted their employees feel. Results of a dependent samples t-test indicated that people ranked egalitarianism significantly higher than the average of the other five values. There was also a significant difference in company diversity ratings. Participants rated the high acceptance-low numeric company as significantly more diverse than the high numeric-low acceptance company. That effect differed depending on whether participants wrote about egalitarianism. Although the interaction effect was only marginally significant when people did not write about egalitarianism, there was no difference in how they perceived the companies’ diversity. However, when people wrote about egalitarianism they rated the high numeric-low acceptance company as less diverse than the low numeric-high acceptance company. The results provide a promising outlook for diversity efforts in helping people to look at employees’ feelings of inclusion.
Characterizing the role of the Burkholderia cepacia Type Six Secretion System in interbacterial competition
Emily Landolt and Lexie Matte
Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative bacterium that causes onion soft rot and can also act as an opportunistic pathogen, especially in patients who suffer from cystic fibrosis (CF). B. cepacia has been known to outcompete Pseudomonas spp. that cause common infections in CF patients. The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is one mechanism that bacteria can use for interbacterial competitions. The T6SS secretes toxins across the cell membrane and into the cytoplasm of a neighboring cell. One protein that is critical for T6SS function is VgrG, which forms the tip of the syringe-like structure. We recently identified a B. cepacia strain with a mutated vgrG and have started to characterize the use of this gene. Preliminary interbacterial competition assays between a wild type B. cepacia and a vgrG mutant have shown that the mutant is a less effective competitor, and will be out competed by the wild type. These competition assays were tested at room temperature, 30°C, and 37°C (body temperature in humans). Competitions at 37°C showed the greatest difference in competitive ability where the wild type out competes the vgrG mutant. This suggests that this vgrG and the T6SS genes associated with it are most active at 37˚C, are used for interbacterial competition in a simple in vitro model, and that this system may contribute to interbacterial competition in a human host. In the future, competitions between B. cepacia and a Pseudomonas species can be set up to observe the competitive dynamics between species that cause infections in humans.
Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative bacterium responsible for causing soft rot disease in onions and is an infectious agent in immunocompromised people (particularly those with cystic fibrosis). This bacterium is naturally antibiotic-resistant, so it is important to understand the virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenicity of this organism. Previous work used transposon mutagenesis, a plant model of infection, and bioinformatics to identify a vgrG gene as a virulence factor in B. cepacia ATCC 25416. This gene encodes the vgrG tip protein of the Type Six Secretion System (T6SS), a complex structure found in many species of bacteria. This syringe-like system allows a bacterium to inject toxic proteins into neighboring cells during interbacterial competition or during infection of eukaryotic hosts. In other organisms, a toxic effector protein is attached to the vgrG tip protein and is delivered into a neighboring cell, killing it. The effector protein works as a pair with an immunity protein, which is responsible for preventing the autotoxicity of the bacterium by the effector. We are currently working to characterize effector and immunity genes within the genome that may interact with our vgrG of interest. Currently, we have isolated all individual effector and immunity genes for expression studies in Escherichia coli, a bacterium lacking these pairs. Future experiments will elucidate the activities of the proteins encoded by these effector and immunity genes. The characterization of these pairs is crucial in understanding how the T6SS contributes to the virulence of B. cepacia.
Exploring the effects of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine on the GluN1/GluN2A NMDA receptor in Schmidtea mediteranea.
β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, known as BMAA, is a neurotoxin produced by several species of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microorganisms such as diatoms and dinoflagellates. BMAA has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Because it is biomagnified through the food chain, accumulation occurs in its symbionts like cycad seeds and seafood, which can be ingested by humans and potentially result in neurological disease. There is evidence that BMAA is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist. NMDA receptors are a family of L-glutamate receptors that play a critical role in learning and memory, and in inducing excitotoxicity in neurons. The role of BMAA in inducing motor neuronal death is not well understood. Schmidtea mediterranea (planarians) produce endogenous glutamate and express genes for glutamate receptors making them a desirable model for investigating the interaction between BMAA and NMDA receptors. Previous work suggested that BMAA exposure induced neuronal damage and, ultimately, death in planarians. The present study examined (1) the localization of NMDA receptors in Schmidtea mediterranea via in situ hybridization (2) the interaction between BMAA and NMDA receptors via RNAi and BMAA exposure trials.
Flavobacterium columnar cyclase knockout displays promising results for vaccine development against Columnaris disease
Flavobacterium columnare is a rod-shaped gram negative bacterium that is strictly aerobic. It is the causative agent of columnaris disease (CD) in many cultured fish, including salmonids, in both warm and cold-water systems. Presentation of CD consists of “straw-like” colony growths on mucosal surfaces of fish (gills and scales) which negatively impacts both fish health and the aquaculture industry. The Type IX Secretion System (T9SS) is necessary for F. columnare virulence. Among the genes that are important for T9SS function is gldN, which is required for both secretion and motility in F. columnare. Deletion of the gldN gene has been shown to reduce virulence. The goal of this study is to examine the toxicity of secreted proteins from the T9SS. Zebrafish infection trials and spent media toxicity assays were performed to examine the effect of spent media (secreted proteins from F. columnare) from the wild type (MSFC-4) and strains with knockouts in the the genes gldN and cylB. CylB is believed to be secreted from through the T9SS. Results suggest the strains lacking specific proteins responsible for chemical reactions that create cyclic compounds appear to cause reduced virulence. Continued experimentation with F. columnare strains and virulence testing in our zebrafish model should shed more light on the mechanisms by which F. columnare causes disease in fish and may lead to the identification of more effective vaccine candidates.
Antonio Reguilon and W Bethard
We demonstrate a simple and cost-efficient scanning confocal microscope setup for use in advanced physics laboratories. Designed from convenient commercial products, the implementation a 3D printed flexure stage allows for further cost reduction. Experiments exploring the thickness of a microscope slide and the surface of solid objects with height variation are presented as foundational components of undergraduate laboratory projects and demonstrate the accuracy of the setup on the micron scale.
Planarians have long fascinated scientists with their incredible capacity for regeneration. Following injury, the abundant population of stem cells in planarians undergo dynamic changes in proliferation rate and differentiation. One approach to better understanding the regeneration process in planarians is to identify genes showing dynamic expression following injury. Here we have used next-generation RNA sequencing to identify a gene, Smed-RPESP, that shows dynamic upregulation following various injuries and begin characterizing its requirements
during the regeneration process. We found that Smed-RPESP could play a role in signaling the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells during tissue remodeling.
Social institutions function well with the support of the public. Historically, the Supreme Court has had a high level of legitimacy to the American public (Gibson, 2007). However, research has also shown that controversial decisions from the high court leads the public to have less confidence in the Court (Grosskopf & Mondak, 1998). The social construction of legitimacy is a fundamental component of both the function and utility of an institution, especially for an institution that issues rulings they expect the public to accept as binding (Tyler, 2006). In light of recent controversial decisions from the Supreme Court, this study focuses on the legitimacy of the Court in the eyes of undergraduate students. Specifically, this study compares the legitimacy of national institutions, like the Supreme Court, to the legitimacy of local or St. Norbert-based institutions. The study will contribute to the literature on institutional legitimacy, and as an added benefit, student respondents might learn more about their own views on social institutions, both locally and more broadly (Feldman & Lynch, 1988).
Kyle Ruhland and Cordell Umland
The radial gate is a unique control structure that acts to constrict fluid vertically with minimal friction and has many applications, including uses in hydroelectric power generation by controlling the flow rate through dams, spillways, and river barrages. The crump weir is a fixed triangle-shaped weir that acts as an asymmetrical ramp for fluid to pass over. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the Froude number, a quantity that characterizes flow behavior, is affected by the horizontal location of a radial gate over a crump weir. We studied this system by changing the position of the radial gate over the crump weir to measure fluid velocities and discharge depths in the inflow and outflow segments of an open channel, rectangular flume to calculate a Froude number for both segments while controlling the distance between the structures. We predict that the height of the free surface relative to the floor of the channel will remain constant after the influence of the radial gate for differing control structure configurations. This research can be used to model various systems of a radial gate with a changing floor height.
Methacrylonitrile is an organic molecule that is believed to be present in the interstellar medium (ISM). Rotational spectra have been measured previously by the McMahon | Woods lab. In this project Methacrylonitrile was synthesized to extend the measured rotational spectra of the molecule from 360-500 GHz. Using this new mm-wave data, Methacrylonitrile will be searched for the ISM, and a highly precise and accurate semi-experimental equilibrium structure (reSE) will be determined for the molecule.
Isotopically substituted analogs of furan and thiophene, two heterocycles, were also synthesized in this project. The deuteriated isotopologues of furan will be analyzed by rotational spectroscopy and used in the determination of an reSE structure for furan. Deuteriated isotopologues of thiophene will be used in formylation reactions and then analyzed by rotational spectroscopy for the creation of a complete reSE structure of 2-formylthiophene.
Animals rely on stem cells to repair tissue damage following disease or injury. In order to study stem cells, Schmidtea mediterranea (planaria) is used as a model organism because of their unique ability to completely regenerate lost tissues through the use of stem cells. Previous studies have focused on how stem cells proliferate in response to injuries with large tissue losses where many cell types need to be regenerated at once. However, in the case of many human injuries or diseases, only one specific cell type is lost. This project aims to characterize how stem cells respond following destruction of specific cell types, particularly if the injury response mechanism is a general proliferative response or a specialized mechanism depending on the cell type lost. Work up to this point has allowed for destruction of pigment cells via light-induced pigment cell loss. Doing so has allowed measurement of proliferation of stem cells following injury through mitotic index calculations and measurement of pigment cells present following injury through in situ hybridization and qPCR. Current works aim to measure the rate at which stem cells and pigment cells regenerate following injury through BrdU Pulse-Chase experiments. Continued research will give insight about the molecular mechanisms behind regeneration following injury or disease involving specific cell types.
Exploration of Wisconsin endophytic species towards the discovery of new natural product antibiotic scaffolds
Lilia Shallow, Collin Sylvain, and Samantha Pardini
Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents has been a problem since the first antibiotic was introduced; however, this issue is becoming more urgent as multidrug resistant microorganisms increase. To locate potential novel natural product antibiotics, we are focusing on organisms called endophytes. Endophytes are bacteria and fungi that colonize the interior of plants without pathogenic effects. Colonization by these organisms is often beneficial to the host because endophytes can enhance the stress tolerance of the host plant by producing compounds that combat other harmful bacteria, fungi, and insects. The plant-endophyte relationship is maintained by a secondary metabolome that has been evolutionarily optimized. The evidence suggests that endophytic microorganisms offer an unexploited abundance of natural products. Despite this, little energy has been focused on their study until recently. We are hoping to exploit the scientific literature about endophytes in Wisconsin to maximize our potential of finding novel organisms and antibiotic scaffolds. Additionally, we have focused our exploration on plants from local ecosystems that are known to have an unusual longevity, or a reported ethnobotanical history; these types of plants are thought to be most likely to harbor a diverse set of endophytes and, therefore, bioactive natural products. The endophytes isolated from our plant samples are co-cultured with target pathogens to screen for secretion of secondary metabolites with antibiotic activity. Endophytes showing activity in these screens are identified using microbiological techniques and 16S rRNA sequencing. Work on identifying the endophytes and their antimicrobial products is ongoing.
Benjamin Stafford and Benjamin Spaude
The spillway and ski-jump fluid flow device is utilized in hydroelectric power, flood protection, and even big-industry recreation. Such flow control structures are used to affect the movement of a fluid where the balance of forces is central to the study of their fluid dynamics. In open-channel flows, the Froude number in used to classify the flow into categories, two of which are tranquil (calm flow) and turbulent (rapid flow). The purpose of this study is to determine how the toss geometry is affected by the Froude number with a spillway weir guided into a ski-jump. Data was collected in the St. Norbert College fluid mechanics laboratory where the fluid velocity and height were measured in two different points in the open-channel flow. To quantify how the Froude Number relates to the toss geometry, the height, and length of the toss were also measured. We expected the geometry of the toss to increase in both height and length creating different maxima points as the velocity changes. If our hypothesis is correct, then we will see the toss geometry change based on the Froude number. During the data-collecting process, we observed two distinct fluid tosses, a primary toss, and two symmetric secondary tosses. After collecting data, we noticed that our hypothesis is valid for the primary toss, but inconclusive for the secondary tosses. With additional research on the spillway & ski-jump weir, we advance our understanding of fluid flow when this type of control structure is present, allowing us to prevent erosion and control flooding.