Host-Specific Parasites Reveal the History and Biogeographical Contacts of Their Hosts: The Monogenea of Nearctic Cyprinoid Fishes

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Host-Specific Parasites Reveal the History and Biogeographical Contacts of Their Hosts: The Monogenea of Nearctic Cyprinoid Fishes

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Host-specific parasites exhibit close co-evolutionary associations with their hosts. In the case of fragmented/disjunct host distribution, host-specific parasites may reflect the biogeographical history of regions and/or the role played by contacts of hosts. The present study was focused on Dactylogyrus (Monogenea) species almost exclusively parasitizing cyprinoid fishes. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships between Dactylogyrus parasites of Nearctic cyprinoids (Leuciscidae) and Dactylogyrus parasites of Palearctic cyprinoids and used Dactylogyrus phylogeny to explore the biogeography of fish hosts in Europe and North America. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that two Nearctic clades of Dactylogyrus spp. have different origins. Historical contacts between European and North American leuciscids were accompanied by the host switching of Dactylogyrus species. In the Nearctic region, Dactylogyrus parasites also colonized non-leuciscid fishes. Dactylogyrus spp. of three Nearctic leuciscid clades were included in the phylogenetic reconstruction; only Dactylogyrus spp. of the Plagopterinae had a common origin. Dactylogyrus species did not reflect the phylogenetic relationships among leuciscid clades, suggesting that past co-diversification was overshadowed by colonization events mediated by paleogeographic and climatological changes and extensive drainage reorganization. Host-specific monogeneans serve as a supplementary tool to reveal the historical biogeographical contacts between freshwater fish from the North America and Europe and also contemporary contacts of leuciscids in North America

Publication Date

1-2022

Keywords

host-parasite associations; host-specific parasites; monogenea; fish; cyproniforms; phylogeny; biogeography; Nearctic area

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Host-Specific Parasites Reveal the History and Biogeographical Contacts of Their Hosts: The Monogenea of Nearctic Cyprinoid Fishes

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