Jean Paul—Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825)—was a German writer in the Romantic tradition, also known for his humorous writing. Hesperus (1795) includes two major ideas that MacDonald explores throughout Phantastes: the notion of dreams, and the importance of mirrors.
Paul, Jean, "Phantastes Chapter 18: Hesperus" (1795). German Romantic and Other Influences. 20.