Jean Paul (Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, 1763-1825) was a German writer. Titan (1800-1803) is a four-volume novel in the Bildungsroman (novel of education) tradition. Schoppe is the friend of Albano (the main character), who searches for balance in his life. Schoppe, however, is a cynic and pessimist and dies after he thinks he see his doppelgänger, but who is, in fact, his look-alike friend. Schoppe’s tragic ending reinforces the death of the brothers in Phantastes.
Paul, Jean, "Phantastes Chapter 22: Titan: A Romance" (1800). German Romantic and Other Influences. 29.