Collected here are faculty and staff works, both creative and academic.
Measurement of the Nucleon Fn 2=Fp 2 Structure Function Ratio by the Jefferson Lab MARATHON Tritium/Helium-3 Deep Inelastic Scattering Experiment
D. Abrams, H. Albataineh, B.S. Aljawrneh, S. Alsalmi, D. Androic, K. Aniol, W. Armstrong, J. Arrington, H. Atac, and Michael Olson
The ratio of the nucleon F2 structure functions, Fn2/Fp2, is determined by the MARATHON experiment from measurements of deep inelastic scattering of electrons from 3H and 3He nuclei. The experiment was performed in the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab using two high-resolution spectrometers for electron detection, and a cryogenic target system which included a low-activity tritium cell. The data analysis used a novel technique exploiting the mirror symmetry of the two nuclei, which essentially eliminates many theoretical uncertainties in the extraction of the ratio. The results, which cover the Bjorken scaling variable range 0.19
On Prime Character Degree Graphs Occuring Within a Family of Graphs (II)
Sara DeGroot, Jacob Laubacher, and Mark Medwind
In this paper, we continue the classification work done in the first paper of the same name. With careful modifications of our previous approach, we are able to deduce (with two notable exceptions) which members of the previously introduced graph family manifest as the prime character degree graph of some solvable group.
A numerical framework for genetic hitchhiking in populations of variable size
Eric Friedlander and Matthias Steinr¨ucken
Natural selection on beneficial or deleterious alleles results in an increase or decrease, respectively, of its frequency within the population. Due to chromosomal linkage, the dynamics of the selected site affect the genetic variation at nearby neutral loci in a process commonly referred to as genetic hitchhiking. Changes in population size, however, can yield patterns in genomic data that mimic the effects of selection. Accurately modeling these dynamics is thus crucial to understanding how selection and past population size changes impact observed patterns of genetic variation. Here, we model the evolution of haplotype frequencies with the Wright-Fisher diffusion to study the impact of selection on linked neutral variation. Explicit solutions are not known for the dynamics of this diffusion when selection and recombination act simultaneously. Thus, we present a method for numerically evaluating the Wright-Fisher diffusion dynamics of two linked loci separated by a certain recombination distance when selection is acting. We can account for arbitrary population size histories explicitly using this approach. A key step in the method is to express the moments of the associated transition density, or sampling probabilities, as solutions to ordinary differential equations. Numerically solving these differential equations relies on a novel accurate and numerically efficient technique to estimate higher order moments from lower order moments. We demonstrate how this numerical framework can be used to quantify the reduction and recovery of genetic diversity around a selected locus over time and elucidate distortions in the site-frequency-spectra of neutral variation linked to loci under selection in various demographic settings. The method can be readily extended to more general modes of selection and applied in likelihood frameworks to detect loci under selection and infer the strength of the selective pressure.
Disruption of Zea mays isochorismate synthase1 decreases PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE activity and suppresses hypersensitive response-induced metabolism
Rachel McCoy, Ryan Benke, Iskander Ibrahim, Jeffery Simpson, Fabiola Muro-Villanueva, Ross Zahn, Clint Chapple, Joshua Widhalm, Sujith Puthiyaveetil, Gurmukh Johal, and Brian Dilkes
ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE (ICS) catalyzes the isomerization of chorismate to isochorismate, an essential precursor in the biosynthesis of the Photosystem I electron carrier phylloquinone and of one of two pathways for the biosynthesis of the defense response hormone salicylic acid (SA). We characterized a Zea mays ics1 mutant for impacts on metabolism, photosynthesis, and immune signaling. Phylloquinone was reduced in the mutant resulting in low electron transfer rates and high electron backflow rates. SA accumulation induced by autoactive alleles of the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene Resistance to Puccinia sorgi1 (Rp1) required ics1. Induced accumulation of SA was not required for lesion formation by the autoactive Rp1-D21#4 allele. Metabolomic analyses and SA supplementation of Rp1-D21#4 mutants, ics1-1 mutants and Rp1-D21#4; ics1-1 double mutants demonstrated that most hypersensitive response-induced metabolism required ics1 but this was independent of SA accumulation. Both the PAL and ICS pathways contributed to SA biosynthesis in maize as labeled phenylalanine was incorporated into SA glucoside. Maize ics1-1 mutants had low PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE activity, accumulated phenylalanine, and decreased abundance of phenylalanine derived metabolites. This demonstrates that the ICS and PAL pathways interact by a yet unknown mechanism complicating the interpretation of SA biosynthesis in plants from genetics alone.
Host-Specific Parasites Reveal the History and Biogeographical Contacts of Their Hosts: The Monogenea of Nearctic Cyprinoid Fishes
Andrea Šimková, Eva Řehulková, Anindo Choudhury, and Mária Seifertová
Host-specific parasites exhibit close co-evolutionary associations with their hosts. In the case of fragmented/disjunct host distribution, host-specific parasites may reflect the biogeographical history of regions and/or the role played by contacts of hosts. The present study was focused on Dactylogyrus (Monogenea) species almost exclusively parasitizing cyprinoid fishes. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships between Dactylogyrus parasites of Nearctic cyprinoids (Leuciscidae) and Dactylogyrus parasites of Palearctic cyprinoids and used Dactylogyrus phylogeny to explore the biogeography of fish hosts in Europe and North America. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that two Nearctic clades of Dactylogyrus spp. have different origins. Historical contacts between European and North American leuciscids were accompanied by the host switching of Dactylogyrus species. In the Nearctic region, Dactylogyrus parasites also colonized non-leuciscid fishes. Dactylogyrus spp. of three Nearctic leuciscid clades were included in the phylogenetic reconstruction; only Dactylogyrus spp. of the Plagopterinae had a common origin. Dactylogyrus species did not reflect the phylogenetic relationships among leuciscid clades, suggesting that past co-diversification was overshadowed by colonization events mediated by paleogeographic and climatological changes and extensive drainage reorganization. Host-specific monogeneans serve as a supplementary tool to reveal the historical biogeographical contacts between freshwater fish from the North America and Europe and also contemporary contacts of leuciscids in North America
Simplicial structures over the 3-sphere and generalized higher order Hochschild homology
Samuel Carolus and Jacob Laubacher
In this paper, we investigate the simplicial structure of a chain complex associated to the higher order Hochschild homology over the 3" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; font-size: 14px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; position: relative;">33-sphere. We also introduce the tertiary Hochschild homology corresponding to a quintuple (A,B,C,ε,θ)" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; font-size: 14px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; position: relative;">(A,B,C,ε,θ)(A,B,C,ε,θ), which becomes natural after we organize the elements in a convenient manner. We establish these results by way of a bar-like resolution in the context of simplicial modules. Finally, we generalize the higher order Hochschild homology over a trio of simplicial sets, which also grants natural geometric realizations.
Supporting Shy Preschool Children in Joining Social Play
Flannery Hope Currin, Kyle Diederich, Kaitlyn Blasi, Allyson Dale Schmidt, Holly David, Kerry Peterman, and Juan Pablo Hourcade
Executive functions (EF), a set of cognitive processes necessary for goal-oriented behavior, are critical for children’s school outcomes and often lacking when children arrive in elementary school. One of the most promising interventions to address this gap is Tools of the Mind (ToM), a Vygotskyan approach to early childhood education with a strong emphasis on sociodramatic play. One challenge in implementing this kind of play is supporting children in joining play with their peers. In this paper we present a content analysis of an eight-week evaluation comparing implementing ToM-style play with and without technology supports. We found that one specific aspect of the technology supports, a voice agent, played a crucial role in integrating shy children into sociodramatic play.
The Type 9 Secretion System Is Required for Flavobacterium johnsoniae Biofilm Formation
Todd J. Eckroat, Camillus Greguske, and David Hunnicutt
Flavobacterium johnsoniae forms biofilms in low nutrient conditions. Protein secretion and cell motility may have roles in biofilm formation. The F. johnsoniae type IX secretion system (T9SS) is important for both secretion and motility. To determine the roles of each process in biofilm formation, mutants defective in secretion, in motility, or in both processes were tested for their effects on biofilm production using a crystal violet microplate assay. All mutants that lacked both motility and T9SS-mediated secretion failed to produce biofilms. A porV deletion mutant, which was severely defective for secretion, but was competent for motility, also produced negligible biofilm. In contrast, mutants that retained secretion but had defects in gliding formed biofilms. An sprB mutant that is severely but incompletely defective in gliding motility but retains a fully functional T9SS was similar to the wild type in biofilm formation. Mutants with truncations of the gldJ gene that compromise motility but not secretion showed partial reduction in biofilm formation compared to wild type. Unlike the sprB mutant, these gldJ truncation mutants were essentially nonmotile. The results show that a functional T9SS is required for biofilm formation. Gliding motility, while not required for biofilm formation, also appears to contribute to formation of a robust biofilm.
“Born Under My Heart”: Adoptive Parents' Use of Metaphors to Make Sense of Their Past, Present, and Future
Lucas Hackenburg, Toni Morgan, and Eve Brank
Metaphors provide the opportunity to make sense of our experiences and share them with others. The current research qualitatively examined interviews with adoptive parents who had adopted through intercountry or private adoptions. Throughout their interviews, each participant used at least one metaphor in describing their experiences of adopting and raising their child. Overarchingly, the metaphor of “Adoption is a journey” encapsulated parents’ experiences. To demonstrate the journey, parents used metaphors to describe the past, present, and future. Metaphors of the past focused on their child's trauma and the origin of how the child came to join their family. Metaphors used to describe the present were challenge metaphors, including child's behaviors and finding support, coping metaphors, and balance metaphors. Lastly, metaphors of the future included guiding and commitment metaphors. In addition to metaphors, parents used symbolic rituals to connect their children with their past and current family. From metaphors, we offer several practical implications for postadoption intervention. First, interventions should be developed to meet participants where they are. Second, interventions should focus on the overall picture of adoption, as parents make sense of their past experiences and their ideals about the future. Lastly, services should focus on tools, not fixes.
Does the Glass Slipper Fit?: Disney Princess Films and Relationship Beliefs and Attitudes
Valerie Kretz and Veronica Hefner
This study is a cross-sectional survey investigating the links between viewing Disney princess films and reports of romantic beliefs, relationship-contingent self-esteem, and attitudes relating to masculine courtship strategies. Results from the survey of 438 undergraduate students indicate a positive association between viewing Disney princess films and reports of relationship-contingent self-esteem, particularly for men, and endorsement of masculine strategies about courtship. Findings are discussed in the context of cultivation and social cognitive theory.
Association between shame aversion and ruminative retribution: Evidence for moderation by externalization of blame and control
Michelle Schoenleber, Emily Beltran, Jessica R. Peters, and Michael D D. Anestis
Shame aversion has been theorized to motivate aggression against the self or others as means of down-regulating shame. Additionally, the direction of aggression may depend on tendencies to attribute blame or causes internally or externally. Data from two separate samples were used to examine shame aversion and its interaction with causal or blame attributions in relation to aggression, controlling for shame-proneness, which is more commonly studied. Results indicated that shame aversion was positively associated with verbal, relational, and passive-rational aggression, as well as with ruminative retribution and non-suicidal self-injury, after accounting for shame-proneness. Most noteworthy, a significant two-way interaction indicated that the association between shame aversion and ruminative retribution (fantasizing about people getting their comeuppance) was particularly strong at high levels of externalization of blame. Findings therefore suggest that although shame-proneness may create situations in which shame regulation strategies are necessary, aggressive fantasies may be used as a regulation strategy when individuals have difficulty tolerating shame and blame others for their circumstances.
Making the Move Online: Interactive Read-Alouds for the Virtual Classroom
Lindsay Stoetzel and Stephanie J. Shedrow
Interactive read-alouds are a mainstay in traditional literacy classrooms because they support wide-ranging goals in reading development. As educators make the transition to virtual classrooms, it is paramount that core practices, such as the interactive read-aloud, are intentionally adapted to ensure that their purpose remains central to their use. Although the production of digital read-alouds has flourished during the recent pandemic, many of these videos lack key components necessary to foster meaningful literacy growth. Educators need to be aware of the affordances and limitations offered by digital read-alouds to analyze and create materials for classroom use. In this article, we offer resources to guide intentional planning to ensure that digital read-aloud experiences go beyond passive student consumption. In addition, specific recommendations illustrate how digital read-alouds can be positioned within synchronous and asynchronous classroom activities to preserve and amplify the sociocultural element that can be more challenging to maintain within virtual environments.
Wellbeing, EDIB, and the Promise of Leadership Development
Kristin Vogel and Sue Erickson
Morale research over the past several years documents a crisis in the library profession and a 2021 report by Ithaka S+R reveals a confidence deficit in library administrators around work towards equity, diversity, inclusivity and belonging. The connections between belonging, resilience, and morale are strong and immediate action is required to address the crisis. This article posits that a strategic approach to leadership development, with a focus on coaching, is key to bridging the gap. Authentic and adaptive leadership models as supportive strategies are explored and a coaching approach to management is presented to launch readers into their next action.
The role of information systems and knowledge codification for service provision strategies
John N. Walsh and Jamie O'Brien
While service scholars see modularisation as balancing the efficiency of standardisation with the value added through customisation the relationships between these concepts are under-theorised. In addition, although information and communication technologies can facilitate all three service strategies, the degree to which they codify service knowledge is not explicitly considered in the extant literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a model that examines service strategy trajectories by specifically considering the ICTs used and the degree of knowledge codification employed.
This study draws on three qualitative case studies of service departments of firms involved in cardiovascular applications, orthopaedic, spinal and neuroscience product development and information technology support. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, document analysis and non-participant observation.
Findings show that ICTs were increasingly used to codify both standardised and customised services, though in different ways. For standardised services ICTs codified the service process, making them even more rigid. Due to the dynamic nature of customised services, drawing on experts' tacit knowledge, ICTs codified the possessors of knowledge rather than the service process they undertook. This study also identified a duality between the tacit development of customised services and modular service codification.
The model is validated using case studies from three companies in the medical and information technology sectors limiting its generalisability.
The importance of considering the degree of tacitness or explicitness of service knowledge is important for service codification. The paper provides managers with empirical examples of how ICTs are used to support all three strategies, allows them to identify their current position and indicates possible future trajectories.
The papers main contribution is the development of a model that integrates the literature on service strategies with knowledge management strategies to classify service standardisation, customisation and modularisation in terms of both service orientation and degree of ICT codification.
A Theological Review of a Lutheran Theology from the Subaltern
Supremacist thinking, epistemological despair, and Christian hope
White supremacy is the result of ignorance, hatred, and systemic racism. There is an additional factor– an epistemology of despair, a view that knowledge cannot be shared and communicated between diverse people. The theology of Augustine, the fourth century African bishop, which is grounded in Jewish teachings and Christian hope, offers an evangelical message that undermines the power of this epistemology by inspiring hope for dialogue as an avenue towards ending supremacist thinking.
McDreamy is McDead: Fan Responses to a Parasocial Breakup
Grounded in scholarship regarding post-object fandom, parasocial breakups, and parasocial grief, this research explored tweets regarding the death of a long-running, central character on the TV show Grey’s Anatomy. A theory-driven thematic analysis revealed five major themes including: emotional expressions of grief, recovery and coping, advocating, not wanting to watch, and memorializing, each encompassing various subthemes. Fans expressed these responses with varying levels of intensity. The results suggest that there are fan responses to a parasocial breakup, especially a parasocial death, not suggested in prior studies that should be examined in future research. Furthermore, a parasocial breakup can be a powerful experience for fans even disrupting their everyday lives.
Who Feels All the Feels? Individual Differences in Emotional Responses to and Enjoyment of Depictions of Romantic Relationships
Valerie E. Kretz
This experiment investigated relationship satisfaction and attachment orientations as moderators of emotional responses to and enjoyment of typical movie and television relationship portrayals. The effects of comedy versus drama exposure were also examined. Participants were 306 adults. Results showed that participants with higher relationship satisfaction experienced more amusement in response to the comedies and hope in response to the romantic movies than those with less satisfaction. Participants with higher attachment avoidance experienced less romantic feeling and hope in response to the romantic movies and less amusement in response to the comedies than those with less avoidance. Main effects of relationship satisfaction and attachment orientations were also found. Additionally, relationship satisfaction and attachment anxiety led to greater enjoyment whereas attachment avoidance led to lesser enjoyment. Higher relationship satisfaction led to more hopeful feelings, which led to greater enjoyment in the romantic movie conditions only. Results are discussed in light of social comparison theory and differential susceptibility to media effects.
How Religion, Social Class, and Race Intersect in the Shaping of Young Women’s Understandings of Sex, Reproduction, and Contraception
Laura M. Krull, Lisa D. Pearce, and Elyse A. Jennings
Using a complex religion framework, this study examines how and why three dimensions of religiosity—biblical literalism, personal religiosity, and religious service attendance—are related to young women’s reproductive and contraceptive knowledge differently by social class and race. We triangulate the analysis of survey data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study and semi-structured interview data from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR) to identify and explain patterns. From the quantitative data, we find that all three dimensions of religiosity link to young women’s understandings of sex, reproduction, and contraception in unique ways according to parental education and racial identity. There is a lack of knowledge about female reproductive biology for young women of higher SES with conservative Christian beliefs (regardless of race), but personal religiosity and religious service attendance are related to more accurate contraceptive knowledge for young black women and less accurate knowledge for young White women. From the qualitative data, we find that class and race differences in the meaning of religion and how it informs sexual behavior help explain results from the quantitative data. Our results demonstrate the importance of taking a complex religion approach to studying religion and sex-related outcomes.
“Pushing Past the Margins” with Micro-content Analysis: A Tool to Identify Gender-bias in Textbooks
Erica M. Southworth, Rebekah Cleaver, and Haley Herbst
We present Micro-content Analysis (MCA) as a tool for social studies educators to quickly review their current textbook and determine if it contains gender-biased content. Our MCA Guide and Toolkit retain traditional content analysis components in a compact manner to ensure that MCA is a time-efficient process for educators. We demonstrate how we implemented the Guide and Toolkit on a secondary world history textbook currently utilized in a Midwest high school. Our MCA Toolkit includes resources for locating information on female historical agents so educators can present gender-inclusive content to their students and rectify any gender-biased messages presented in textbooks.
Classifying Character Degree Graphs With Six Verteces
Mark W. Bissler, Jacob Laubacher, and Mark L. Lewis
We investigate prime character degree graphs of solvable groups that have six vertices. There are one hundred twelve non-isomorphic connected graphs with six vertices, of which all except nine are classified in this paper. We also completely classify the disconnected graphs with six vertices.
Saturation and alternate pathways in four-wave mixing in rubidium
Erik Brekke and Noah Swan
We have examined the frequency spectrum of the blue light generated via four-wave mixing in a rubidium vapor cell inside a ring cavity. At high atomic density and input laser power, two distinct frequency components separated by 116±4 MHz are observed, indicating alternate four-wave mixing channels through the 6p3/2 hyperfine states. The dependence of the generated light on excitation intensity and atomic density are explored, and they indicate that the primary process has saturated. This saturation results when the excitation rate through the 6p state becomes equal to the rate through the 5p state, giving no further gain with atomic density while a quadratic intensity dependence remains.
A Simplicial Construction for Noncommutative Settings
Samuel Carolus, Jacob Laubacher, and Mihai D. Staic
In this paper we present a general construction that can be used to define the higher Hochschild homology for a noncommutative algebra. We also discuss other examples where this construction can be used.
Rigid linkages and partial zero forcing
Daniela Ferrero, Mary Flagg, H. Tracy Hall, Leslie Hogben, Seth A. Meyer, Jephian C.-H. Lin, Shahla Nasserasr, and Bryan Shader
Connections between vital linkages and zero forcing are established. Specifically, the notion of a rigid linkage is introduced as a special kind of unique linkage and it is shown that spanning forcing paths of a zero forcing process form a spanning rigid linkage and thus a vital linkage. A related generalization of zero forcing that produces a rigid linkage via a coloring process is developed. One of the motivations for introducing zero forcing is to provide an upper bound on the maximum multiplicity of an eigenvalue among the real symmetric matrices described by a graph. Rigid linkages and a related notion of rigid shortest linkages are utilized to obtain bounds on the multiplicities of eigenvalues of this family of matrices.